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The following technical papers are provided for the use of ozone to remediate soil and groundwater remediation.

Ground Water Currents (EPA 542-N-00-006). Ground Water Currents is a monthly newsletter prepared by the United States Environmental Protection Agency that evaluates and discusses developments in innovative groundwater treatment. This issue highlights the use of peroxide, ozone, and permanganate in remediating ground water through chemical oxidation/reduction. (September 2000, 4 pages). Download document [80K/PDF]

Field Applications of In Situ Remediation Technologies: Chemical Oxidation (EPA 542-R-98-008). The U.S. EPA Technology Innovation Office published this report. The purpose of this document is to describe completed and ongoing pilot demonstrations and full scale applications of in-situ chemical oxidation technologies for remediation of soil and ground water at waste disposal and spill sites. Download document [137K/PDF]

Technology Assessment for Remediation at Solvent Contaminated Drycleaner Sites The State Coalition for Remediation of Drycleaners has completed a paper entitled “Technology Assessment for Remediation at Solvent Contaminated Drycleaner Sites.” This document provides background information of technologies used in remediating contaminated drycleaning sites. The paper discusses the general drycleaning process, how contaminants can get into the soil and groundwater, assessment methods including the impacts of chlorinated drycleaning solvents in the soil and groundwater, and remediation methods commonly used to clean up the lingering contamination. The remediation methods are based on a snapshot of the remediation technologies that have been used at drycleaning sites under the oversight of SCRD member states as of March 2005. Download document [242/PDF]

TOSC Environmental Briefs for Citizens:  Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation The Technical Outreach Services for Communities (TOSC) program promotes community involvement in environmental decision-making through educational and technical assistance services, and is funded under a grant from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This paper presents an overview of chemical oxidation with brief discussions of Fenton’s Reagent, permanganate, persulfate, and ozone. Download document [218K/PDF]

Technical and Regulatory Guidance for In Situ Chemical Oxidation of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater Second Edition This guidance document includes descriptions of three commonly used chemical oxidants several case studies, as well as examples of state regulatory applications. It outlines the technical and regulatory requirements of in situ chemical oxidation. Provides a comprehensive discussion on chemical oxidants, along with a detailed presentation of some of the key concepts of remedial design. Download document [2,428K/PDF]

Aqueous Ozonation of Pesticides: A Review (Reynolds, 1989). This technical paper presents a comprehensive review of research addressing the oxidation of pesticides with ozone. Reaction rates, efficiency, and chemical reactions are presented in this summary report.  Download document [1,317K/PDF]

Measurement of High Ozone Concentrations in Gases by KI Titration and Monitoring by U-V Absorption (Masschelein, 1998). Presentation of analytical methods to determine the concentration of ozone at high concentration using both the potassium iodide titration method and ultraviolet light absorption process. Download document [225K/PDF]

Technology Evaluation Report: In Situ Chemical Treatment In situ chemical treatment techniques are particularly useful for treatment of source areas to reduce the mass of contaminants and interception of plumes to remove mobile organics and metals. Treatment via chemical injection can be oxidative, reductive/precipitative, or desorptive/dissolvable depending upon the chemical/contaminant interaction. Delivery of chemicals to the subsurface may be via conventional well injection techniques, or via innovative technologies such as deep soil mixing and hydraulic fracturing, or installation of chemical treatment walls. This report provides information both on the chemistry and the engineering aspects of available in situ chemical treatment technologies. Available cost information, lessons learned, and information on regulatory issues are also presented. The main chemical injection technologies discussed in detail in the report are oxidation, reduction and immobilization, and in situ flushing. Permeable chemical treatment wall reactions discussed include immobilization of inorganics and organics via sorption, immobilization of inorganics via precipitation, and degradation of inorganic anions and organics. (July 1999). Download document [304K/PDF]



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