Permanganate is an
oxidizing agent with an affinity for oxidizing
organic compounds containing carbon-carbon
double bonds, aldehyde groups or hydroxyl
groups. The permanganate ion is strongly
attracted to the electrons in carbon-carbon
double bonds, such as those found in
chlorinated alkenes. Under normal subsurface
pH and temperature conditions, the
carbon-carbon double bond of alkenes is broken
and the unstable intermediates are converted
to carbon dioxide through either hydrolysis or
further oxidation by the permanganate ion.
Permanganate can also be used to treat organic
compounds that contain hydroxyl functional
groups such as primary and secondary alcohols,
as well as some organic acids such as phenol.
These oxidation reactions occur best at higher
pH values where hydrogen abstraction creates a
negative charge on the oxygen atom.
Manganese dioxide (MnO2) is a
natural mineral already found in the soils in
many parts of the country. If the precipitation
of manganese dioxide in the soils is excessive,
it can reduce the permeability of the soil, thus
limiting injection of the aqueous oxidant.
Bench-scale and Soil
Oxidant Demand testing by Oxidation
Systems can identify potential problems with
in-situ chemical oxidation and allow design
modifications to be made before field-scale